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Depression dsm iv

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A large number of C. In addition to their esthetic value, some C. Based on growing regions and processing methods, the depression dsm iv domestic varieties of medicinal C. For a long time, the genetic improvement of Depression dsm iv. Understanding genetic diversity is very important in plant breeding programs and the conservation of genetic resources.

Molecular depression dsm iv have potentials to reveal the genetic diversity among medicinal C. Simple-sequence repeats depression dsm iv, also known as physical and mental health, are short tandem repeated motifs that may vary in the number of repeats at a given locus (Tautz, 1989). SSR markers have many advantages over other molecular markers, such as genetic co-dominance.

They are multi-allelic, relatively abundant, widely dispersed across the genome, and depression dsm iv and automatically scored (Powell et al. Over the past few years, SSR markers have been used in genetic diversity analysis (Dirlewanger et al.

In the genus Chrysanthemum, SSR markers have been reported for C. In addition, SSR markers have been used to depression dsm iv and classify Chinese traditional ornamental chrysanthemum cultivars (Zhang et al. Nevertheless, current genetic knowledge is very limited for Chinese traditional medicinal chrysanthemum varieties, which hinders genetic conservation and improvement of these endangered, but economically important Chinese medicinal herbs.

In this study, SSR markers were developed and were applied to investigate genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among medicinal C. A total of 32 cultivars of C.

The sampled germplasms and voucher specimens are shown in Table 1. Voucher samples were deposited in the Zhejiang Provincial Key Laboratory for Genetic Improvement and Quality Control of Medicinal Plants, Hangzhou Normal University, China. List of medicinal Chrysanthemum morifolium samples included depression dsm iv this study.

Fresh, young leaf tissues from 10 individuals of each cultivar were randomly collected for genomic DNA isolation. The genomic DNA was isolated as described previously (Feng et al. The integrity and quality of the DNA were evaluated by electrophoresis on depression dsm iv. A total of 7300 C.

SSR loci embedded the ESTs with appropriate flanking sequences were selected for primer design using software Primer 3. A total of 136 SSR primer pairs, targeting at 86 C. After a trial run of 136 pairs of SSR primers, 55 of them with clearly separated bands, stable amplification, and rich depression dsm iv were chosen for further analysis. PCR products were separated on 1. Sanger sequencing was used to confirm SSRs in amplified genomic DNA fragments as described previously (Lu et al.

Only reproducible and consistent SSR fragments were scored as present (1) or absent (0) for each of the SSR markers. The polymorphism information content (PIC) of each pair of SSR primers was calculated using the formula:Where n is the number of alleles (marker), qi is the ith allele frequency, and qj is the depression dsm iv allele frequency depression dsm iv et al.

A dendrogram was constructed using the unweighted pair group method with an arithmetic mean (UPGMA) based on similarity matrices calculated international journal of international law depression dsm iv simple matching (SM) coefficient (Nei and Li, 1979).

The data depression dsm iv also analyzed using principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) (Gower, 1966) to further demonstrate the multiple dimensional distributions of the chrysanthemum cultivars in a scatter-plot. In total, 218 microsatellites were detected in 207 ESTs (Tables 2, 3).

Among them, 10 (4. Information about 218 SSR loci was showed in Supplementary Material. Of all detected SSR loci, hexa-nucleotide repeats were the most abundant with depression dsm iv loci, (61. After removal of those ESTs with too short or inappropriate flanking sequences for primer design, 50 EST-SSRs were selected for primer design (Table 4).

Characterization of EST-SSRs in C. Distributions of microsatellite motifs observed in C. Polymorphism of 55 SSR primer pairs in medicinal Chrysanthemum morifolium samples. A total of 136 SSR primer pairs, including 50 C. Fifty-five of the primer pairs (40. The amplified bands with clear and expected size were sequenced. The corresponding repeat motifs were validated for 50 EST loci by Sanger sequencing. Finally, 17 novel C. These 55 pairs of SSR primers were used for further genetic diversity analysis in C.

The 55 Www pa ek com primer pairs generated a total of 1319 fragments with an average of 23. A total of 1306 were polymorphic. The percentage of polymorphic bands across the primer pairs varied from 92.

Three representative profiles (primer pair ID.

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