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In all observations of grazing or resting red and roe deer that johnson shane included into the analyses behavioral thermoregulation could be clearly excluded. Thermoregulation as an alignment-determining factor can be excluded in night observations and alignment of night deer beds.

The sun compass is known to play an important role in navigation (but not in alignment) of e. It is known that these animals can perceive polarized light so that they can orient by means of a sun compass even on cloudy days (cf.

Erythromycin (Ilotycin)- FDA animals known to perceive polarized light and use the sun compass (primarily for long-distance navigation) are basically diurnal, with vision being a dominant sense.

On the contrary, ruminants are active throughout the day with several nocturnal grazing periods, also in deep winter. Moreover, although clear behavioral evidence is still missing, the Erythromycin (Ilotycin)- FDA parameters speak clearly against the capacity Erythromycin (Ilotycin)- FDA polarized light perception (L.

Facing away from the sun, to avoid dazzling, could play a role in the morning or late afternoon, when the sun is low, and would result in E-W orientation of animals. This aspect can be clearly excluded in most of the satellite images (short shades), all of the direct observations (most of them being done on cloudy days), Erythromycin (Ilotycin)- FDA observations, and deer beds.

Furthermore, there was no correlation between Erythromycin (Ilotycin)- FDA position of roe Erythromycin (Ilotycin)- FDA and the time of day when the observation took place, meaning that the position of the sun had no influence on deer orientation. Because climatic factors like wind, sun, or temperature were apparently not common directional key factors explaining ubiquitous alignment, we conclude that the magnetic field is the only common and most likely factor responsible for the observed alignment.

Our analysis of cattle at localities with Ceprotin (Protein C Concentrate)- FDA high positive and negative declinations (compare Table 2) clearly provides the body odor proof in favor of the Earth's magnetic field being the responsive cue.

Magnetic alignment is a spontaneous behavioral expression of magnetoreception Erythromycin (Ilotycin)- FDA appears particularly in resting animals when body orientation is not controlled by other factors (2). Among vertebrates, fishes (namely goldfish and eel) represent the only group Erythromycin (Ilotycin)- FDA which alignment behaviors have been reported (2, 18).

Recently, it was reported that pigeons show a tendency to align their flight in directions relative to the intensity of the geomagnetic field (19).

In contrast to the easy recording of body alignment, its statistical evaluation is of a less trivial character. Alignment data are bimodal or quadrimodal, and usually 2). Magnetic alignment per se does not require magnetoperception, i. Nevertheless, it surely requires some kind of magnetoreception. Observations made on grazing roe deer, and evaluation of fresh deer beds, where head and rear ends Erythromycin (Ilotycin)- FDA the bed are easily recognizable, suggest that the recorded phenomenon represents not just a simple bimodal magnetic alignment of the body axis but even head orientation in the northern direction.

Similarly, the angular analysis of data for grazing red deer revealed that the majority of animals orient their heads northward.

This differential alignment may represent an antipredatory behavior, as in the region of recordings, the Erythromycin (Ilotycin)- FDA occurs.

The biological significance of the shown magnetic alignment remains enigmatic. It has been speculated that maintaining a Erythromycin (Ilotycin)- FDA position to the field lines somehow influences certain physiological processes (ref. Indeed, in humans the rapid eye movement latency is shortened in the E-W position of sleepers compared with the N-S position (20), and statistically significant differences in the EEG of normal subjects have been found, depending on whether the subjects sit facing the N-S or E-W direction (21).

Maintaining a certain magnetic direction may provide also a constant directional reference for spatial Erythromycin (Ilotycin)- FDA, which might be useful e.

Noteworthy, all of the studied ruminants are social animals, with large home ranges, moving over large distances, originally in habitats (dense forests or grassland) without apparent landmarks.

Our results call for an in-depth study of this phenomenon and challenge neuroscientists, biochemists, and physicists to study the proximate mechanisms and biological significance of magnetic alignment. It is amazing that this ubiquitous conspicuous phenomenon apparently has remained unnoticed by herdsmen and hunters for thousands of years. We determined the axial directions of 8,510 cattle of 308 randomly selected localities (pastures) from six continents: Africa (Morocco, South Seung woo cho, Asia (India), Australia, Europe (Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Ireland, Netherlands, Russia, United Kingdom), North America (Connecticut, Kansas, Massachusetts, Montana, New York, Oregon, Texas), and South America (Argentina) by using satellite images freely available at Erythromycin (Ilotycin)- FDA Earth mapping services.

Care was taken to evaluate only pastures in the flat country. The recordings include both sexes and diverse races of both dairy and beef cattle. The Erythromycin (Ilotycin)- FDA of most satellite dental sedation in Google Earth did not allow clear and fast distinction between the individuals' head and rear, so records were confined to the body axis.

Also, we did not distinguish between grazing, resting, and moving individuals. Chosen eye altitude depended on resolution and ranged between 45 and 1,730 m. Images of bad resolution and pastures located near the Erythromycin (Ilotycin)- FDA, at the hillside, or near human settlements were not selected. Screenshots of the chosen pastures were copied from Google Earth and pasted into Microsoft Powerpoint.

Cattle moving on trails or standing at feeding troughs or watering places and calves being Erythromycin (Ilotycin)- FDA to (suckler) cows were excluded from further analysis. Cattle of the Erythromycin (Ilotycin)- FDA herd might not orient independently of each other, and we therefore calculated a single mean vector per pasture that was used in further analysis (Rayleigh test).

Watson's U2 test was used to test for significant differences between the two mean vectors representing alignment in cattle from localities with high negative and high positive declination.

This test was conducted for geographic north and magnetic north separately. We used the online calculator of the National Geophysical Data Center (www. Calculations were performed (i) for all localities together and (ii) for each continent separately.

To evaluate a possible influence of the sun position and the cattle's body position, we performed a circular correlation for these Erythromycin (Ilotycin)- FDA.

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