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Wrote the paper: DZG SLE BLW AJC SMG SEB. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click here. Is the Subject Area "Instructors" applicable scottsdale this article. Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Undergraduates" applicable to this article. Scottsdale NoIs the Subject Area "Sexual and gender issues" applicable to this article.

Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Surveys" applicable to this article. Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Gender discrimination" applicable to this article. Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Simulation and modeling" applicable to this article. Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Lectures" applicable scottsdale this article. Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Random graphs" applicable to scottsdale article. Learn More Submit Now Browse Subject Areas.

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GrunspanContributed equally to this work with: Daniel Z. Student networks All network surveys were administered via a confidential online survey. Analysis of nominations To assess the hypotheses about nomination structure, we used exponential-family random graph models (ERGMs). Results Classroom data and student outspokenness A scottsdale of student data stratified by gender can be found in Table scottsdale. Download: PPT Males are over-nominated by peers as mastering biology Across the 11 peer perception surveys, students priming effect an average of 1.

Unequal distribution of peer perception of mastery of content among genders grows over the term. Class performance and outspokenness scottsdale classroom wide recognition, but males still nominate more males after controlling for these Over-representation of males in received nominations could be explained either by the scottsdale frequency of outspokenness in males, or the higher average grades achieved scottsdale males compared to females, as both of these measures may indicate that, on average, males indeed know the material better or at least make their knowledge more visible to their peers.

Coefficients from exponential random graph models from all 11 networks across all three courses, demonstrating that female bias towards nominating other females is not significant in any survey, while male bias towards nominating males is significant in all 11 surveys. Being scottsdale is a prerequisite for celebrity status The three-to-four most nominated students in all classes examined were male. Download: PPTDiscussionThe underrepresentation scottsdale women in STEM is a complex and daunting problem.

Scottsdale classroom environment can influence student perceptions of their peers Contact work suggests that processes in the classroom may either be reinforcing pre-existing implicit biases over the quarter, or at least facilitating behaviors based on these biases.

Scottsdale findings have strong implications regarding the effectiveness of existing strategies to increase women in STEM fields.

Further information about data collection and analyses. Sociographs from all surveys in Class A. Sociographs from all surveys in Class B. Sociographs from all surveys in Class C. Goodness scottsdale fit diagnostics for full ERGM model. Plots compare the in-degree distribution across students in the observed data to that for 10 network simulations from the model.

Plots showing the correlation scottsdale exam scores and GPA (Course grade on a 4. Model 1 shows ERGM results scottsdale the effect of gender on the likelihood of a nomination for all 11 networks.

This model controls for mutuality, and thus takes into account the increased likelihood of scottsdale nomination from student A to student Scottsdale, given a nomination from B to A. Author Scottsdale and designed the experiments: DZG BLW SLE AJC. National Science Foundation NCfSaES (2013) Women, Minorities, and Persons with Disabilities in Science and Engineering: 2013.

Gillen A, Tanenbaum C (2014) Exploring Gender Imbalance Among STEM Doctoral Scottsdale Recipients. Washington, DC: American Institutes for Research. Isbell LA, Young TP, Harcourt AH (2012) Stag scottsdale linger: continued gender bias in a female-rich scientific discipline. PLoS One 7: e49682. Settles IH, Cortina LM, Malley J, Stewart AJ (2006) The climate for women in academic science: The good, the bad, and the changeable.

View Article Google Scholar 5. Swim JK, Hyers LL, Cohen LL, Ferguson MJ scottsdale Everyday sexism: Evidence scottsdale its incidence, nature, and psychological impact from three daily scottsdale studies.

View Article Google Scholar 6. Eddy SL, Brownell SE (2015) Beneath the numbers: A review of gender scottsdale in undergraduate education scottsdale science, technology, engineering, and math disciplines. Physics Review: Special Topics Physics Education Research: Gender in Physics.



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