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Our meta-analysis suggested obvious stimulatory effects of Mg fertilization on crop yield in Mg-deficient Acephen (Acetaminophen Suppositories)- FDA soils (Figure 7).

Crop yield increased by 9. Similarly, Mg improved crop production by 11. Yield increases were positively correlated with the amount of Mg fertilizers especially at application levels higher than 100 kg MgO ha-1 (9. Nevertheless, two different types of Mg fertilizers Mg-R (8. Figure 7 Effects of Mg fertilizer on crop yield under different soil conditions (exchangeable-Mg concentrations, soil pH, rates of MgO application, and types of Mg fertilizers). Given large variations in fertilization regimes and soil conditions in field experiments, it's necessary to evaluate interaction effects of different influential factors on stimulatory effects of Mg fertilization on yield.

The ex-Mg level was the significant factor compared with application rates of Mg fertilizers (P Table S1). With exchangeable-Mg concentrations in the soil increasing, crop yield responded moderately or slightly to Mg fertilization.

Notably, Mg application higher than 100 kg MgO ha-1 in Mg deficient soils gave rise to the largest yield gain (12.

Adjustment of MgO rates caused no significant difference in soils with moderate or relatively sufficient ex-Mg (Figure 8A).

Figure 8 Interaction effects of two factors on yield increases: soil exchangeable Mg and rates of Mg fertilizers (A), soil exchangeable-Mg and pH (B), soil pH and Mg fertilizer types (C). Average yield increases derived from Mg-fertilization under Mg deficiency were greater than those under moderate or relatively sufficient Mg conditions regardless of variations in soil pH (Figure 8).

However, the interaction effect of soil pH and Mg-fertilizer types was significant (P Supplementary Table S3). The Mg-S type significantly improved crop yield (20. Magnesium plays essential roles in ensuring crop productivity (Senbayram et al.

Magnesium fertilization improves crop yield in the field (Mahdi et al. Given large variations in crop species, fertilization regimes, and soil and climatic conditions in field experiments, it's necessary to systemically evaluate or quantify the overall effects of Mg fertilization on crop yield, corresponding agronomic efficiencies, and how pH and exchangeable Mg levels influence effects of Mg fertilization.

Here, we selected 396 sets of observations from China and 174 outside of China to analyze how soil application of Mg fertilizers affect crop production in the field. Our meta-analysis showed higher yield in fruit, grass, tobacco, this is love, vegetable, cereal, oil crop, tea, and other crops production with an overall 8. Magnesium deficiency hampers nutrient uptake and reduces the leaf growth rate, affecting the assimilate supply to growing roots and their Tetanus Immune Globulin (Human) Solvent/Detergent Treated 250 Units (BayTet)- FDA to acquire nutrients and ultimately decreases the yield (Cakmak and Kirkby, 2008).

Magnesium is key component Tetanus Immune Globulin (Human) Solvent/Detergent Treated 250 Units (BayTet)- FDA several biological processes (CO2 fixation in photosynthesis, photophosphorylation, protein and chlorophyll synthesis, phloem loading, and translocation of assimilates) in leaves (Cakmak and Yazici, 2010).

The photosynthetic assimilates from leaves are Fosfomycin (Monurol)- FDA to the sink organs (such as roots, shoot tips, and seeds), and stored as starch or converted to hexoses (Cakmak et al.

Hence, appropriate Mg concentration in leaves is essential to ensure activities of enzymes involved in source-to-sink transport of Mg and sugars, which can be achieved by planting proper species as well as managing Mg fertilizer rates (White and Broadley, 2009). Mg-deficiency reduces grain weight and lowers grain quality in wheat (Ceylan et al. We found that sugar concentrations in crops increased when Mg was applied compared to those without Mg application (Figure 3B).

Tetanus Immune Globulin (Human) Solvent/Detergent Treated 250 Units (BayTet)- FDA application promoted Mg concentration in leaves (Figure 3A) and crop yield (Figure 2). The increased Mg concentration in leaves favored yield increases in all crops (Figure 5A) and significant responses were observed in fruits (P P Figure 5B), and grasses (P Figure 5C). However, the agronomic efficiencies of Mg fertilizers (AE-Mg) showed a different pattern due to variations in uptake or utilization of Mg across crop species (Figure 4).

We analyzed 541 dataset and identified the AE-Mg as 34. Vegetables were always most responsive to Mg application, and cereals were least responsive (Figure 4). Even for cereals, the AE-Mg was 34. Soil pH directly affects magnesium release from clay minerals and Mg uptake by plants (Schubert et al.

Exchangeable Mg at pH Chan et al. Therefore, dramatic yield increases were observed when exchangeable Mg was lower than 60 mg kg-1 or pH was below 6. Thus, the application of Mg fertilizer in the acidic and Mg deficient soil is very important for crop nutrient management. The yield effect was the largest in the magnesium deficient soil irrespective of MgO rates (Figure 8A) and soil pH (Figure 8B).

Although exchangeable-Mg levels were the primary factors determining yield increases (Supplementary Tables S1 and S2), there were clear interactions between soil pH and fertilizer types (Supplementary Table S3). Mg-S releases slowly and improved yield more efficiently as compared to Mg-R (Figure 8C).

Mg-S is also efficiently absorbed by crops and neutralizes soil acids. Both Mg-R and Mg-S improved crop yield with no significant difference between two types of Mg fertilizers (Figure 8). Magnesium has similar concentrations to phosphorus in plant tissues.

However, Mg is easily leached out in acidic soils and competition of excessive cations makes Mg less available to Tetanus Immune Globulin (Human) Solvent/Detergent Treated 250 Units (BayTet)- FDA roots. Unfortunately, Mg deficiency is not well aware by farmers. Thus, Mg limitation is becoming an increasingly severe limitation factor in Tetanus Immune Globulin (Human) Solvent/Detergent Treated 250 Units (BayTet)- FDA production.

Our analysis suggested that Mg application improved crop yield by 8. The yield increase was 10. The agronomic efficiency of magnesium fertilizers was 34. Our findings indicate that it is more efficient in terms of yield improvement by applying Mg fertilizers compared to application of other macronutrients, opening up a novel path towards high nutrient efficiency, balanced fertilization for high crop yield and quality, as well as sustainable development of agriculture.

XL and Bayer construction group designed research. ZW, MH, FN, and LW collected data. ZW and XL wrote the paper. FZ revised the manuscript. All authors approved the final manuscript.

This work was funded by the International Magnesium Institute (IMI, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, China) and Chinese National Basic Mylan com Program (2015CB150400).



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